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APA Citations

The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is used frequently in Psychology, Business, Criminology, Economics, Education, Sociology, and widely throughout the social sciences and humanities.




One author:

Faulkner, W. (1936). Absalom, Absalom!. New York, NY: Vintage Books.



Two authors:

Lash, S., & Urry, J. (1994). Economies of signs & space. London, England: Sage Publications.





Journal article with no DOI assigned:

MacDonald, S. P. (2007). The erasure of language. College Composition and Communication, 58(4), 585-625. Retrieved from



Journal article with DOI assigned:

Forret, M., Fox-Turnbull, W., Granshaw, B., Harwood, C., Miller, A., O'Sullivan, G., & Patterson, M. (2013). Towards a pre-service technology teacher education resource for New Zealand. International Journal of Technology & Design Education23(3), 473-487. doi:10.1007/s10798-011-9199-8



What is a DOI?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically. From





Weitering, H. (2018). Missed the blood moon lunar eclipse? Here's when the next one is happening. Retrieved from



Website (with no date or author given):

Our Lady of the Lake University. (n.d). Mission, vision, and values. Retrieved from



For more examples check
Academic Writer

Database Citations

Article databases like Academic Search Complete and JSTOR have a "Cite" feature under Tools that allows you to view the citation and copy/paste it directly into your References page. Make sure to double check it with the Style Guide!


cite option in database

APA citation from database

Academic Writer: Your Place for all things APA

Web Resources

Citation Tools







Citation Machine




Knight Cite